Photographer Jo-Anne McArthur has spent the last two decades photographing animals enduring pain while being used for food, entertainment, fashion, experimentation, work, or religious ceremonies.
In some small Asian slaughterhouses, clubbing is used to stun pigs. This often fails to render the animals fully unconscious before their throats are slit, Thailand © Jo-Anne McArthur
In this slaughterhouse, cows are immobilized by having a blade thrust into their spinal cord, a process known as pithing, Mexico © Aitor Garmendia
After a street show in Jakarta, a crab-eating macaque receives payment from the audience, Indonesia © Joan de la Malla